In general, pipelines with a temperature lower or higher than room temperature requires insulation, such as chilling water pipelines (0°C~10°C), brine pipelines (< 0°C), liquid nitrogen or liquid oxygen pipelines (≤ -100°C), hot spring pipelines. It is superior to wood or polyurethane that is often used as an insulation material
between pipelines and pipe racks. However, there are always gaps between pipelines and pipe supports due to the inflexibility of wood and polyurethane. This is the reason behind many insulation failures that leads to dripping from pipelines, corrosion to pipelines and loss of energies.